Presentation Requirements

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File Formats

You must submit an editable file containing the text of your manuscript. Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, DOCX, RTF, XLS. LaTeX files are also accepted. We do not prescribe a specific template; you may use any commonly used template.

Manuscript Length

Except for the short commentary, short report, and short review manuscript types, there are no prescribed word or page limits and no excess word or page counts are charged. However please be aware that unusual or disproportionate word counts may attract adverse comment from peer reviewers.

Your manuscript must be presented in American English. If English is not your native language we recommend having your paper proof read before submission. We offer a professional English editing service. Throughout your manuscript please use page numbers. The first pages of your manuscript must contain:

1. The paper's full title
2. The full names of each author and their institutional affiliations. Position, department, institution, city, state, country should be stated.
3. An abstract of about 150 words and three to six keywords.

Illustrations, pictures and graphs, should be supplied with the highest quality and in an electronic format that helps us to publish your article in the best way possible. Please follow the guidelines below.


TIFF, JPEG: Common format for pictures (containing no text or graphs).
EPS: Preferred format for graphs and line art (retains quality when enlarging/zooming in).


Figures/charts and tables created in MS Word should be included in the main text rather than at the end of the document.
Figures and other files created outside Word (i.e. Excel, PowerPoint, JPG, TIFF, EPS, and PDF) should be submitted separately. Please add a placeholder note in the running text (i.e. "[insert Figure 1.]")


Rasterized based files (i.e. with .tiff or .jpeg extension) require a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art should be supplied with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi.


The lettering used in the artwork should not vary too much in size and type (usually sans serif font as a default).


Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online.


Supplementary material

This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files


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