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International Journal of Tryptophan Research

Investigation of the Tissue Distribution and Physiological Roles of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-2

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International Journal of Tryptophan Research 2017:10 1178646917735098

Original Research

Published on 09 Oct 2017

DOI: 10.1177/1178646917735098


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Abstract

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2) is 1 of the 3 enzymes that can catalyze the first step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. Of the 2 other enzymes, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase is highly expressed in the liver and has a role in tryptophan homeostasis, whereas indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) expression is induced by inflammatory stimuli. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 is reportedly expressed comparatively narrow, including in liver, kidney, brain, and in certain immune cell types, and it does not appear to contribute significantly to systemic tryptophan catabolism under normal physiological conditions. Here, we report the identification of an alternative splicing pattern, including the use of an alternative first exon, that is conserved in the mouse Ido1 and Ido2 genes. These findings prompted us to assess IDO2 protein expression and enzymatic activity in tissues. Our analysis, undertaken in Ido2 +/+ and Ido2−/− mice using immunohistochemistry and measurement of tryptophan and kynurenine levels, suggested an even more restricted pattern of tissue expression than previously reported. We found IDO2 protein to be expressed in the liver with a perinuclear/nuclear, rather than cytoplasmic, distribution. Consistent with earlier reports, we found Ido2 −/− mice to be phenotypically similar to their Ido2+/+ counterparts regarding levels of tryptophan and kynurenine in the plasma and liver. Our findings suggest a specialized function or regulatory role for IDO2 associated with its particular subcellular localization.



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