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Disruption of microtubule function is the antitumor mechanism of several classes of drugs used to treat cancer today. However, the significant beneficial effect on tumor outcomes is frequently counterbalanced by neurotoxic complications. Despite an abundance of scientific data, our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying this toxic reaction remains unclear, further hindering attempts to identify and develop effective preventive strategies. The primary goals of this review are to: (1) provide insight regarding the biology of the microtubule, (2) analyze the molecular and biochemical pathways that may be involved in the development of neurotoxicity, and (3) propose a unifying concept linking drug-induced neuropathy, microtubule dysfunction, and vitamin D.
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