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Biochemistry Insights

Molecular Differences and Similarities Between Alzheimer’s Disease and the 5XFAD Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyloidosis

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Biochemistry Insights 2013:6 1-10

Original Research

Published on 21 Nov 2013

DOI: 10.4137/BCI.S13025


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Abstract

Transgenic (Tg) mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been extensively used to study the pathophysiology of this dementia and to test the efficacy of drugs to treat AD. The 5XFAD Tg mouse, which contains two presenilin-1 and three amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations, was designed to rapidly recapitulate a portion of the pathologic alterations present in human AD. APP and its proteolytic peptides, as well as ­apolipoprotein E and endogenous mouse tau, were investigated in the 5XFAD mice at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. AD and nondemented subjects were used as a frame of reference. APP, amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, APP C-terminal fragments (CT99, CT83, AICD), β-site APP-cleaving enzyme, and APLP1 substantially increased with age in the brains of 5XFAD mice. Endogenous mouse tau did not show age-related differences. The rapid synthesis of Aβ and its impact on neuronal loss and neuroinflammation make the 5XFAD mice a desirable paradigm to model AD.



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