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Nutrition and Metabolic Insights

Nutritional Effect of Oral Supplement Enriched in ω-3 Fatty Acids, Arginine, RNA on Immune Response and Leukocyte–platelet Aggregate Formation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

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Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2014:7 39-46

Original Research

Published on 25 May 2014

DOI: 10.4137/NMI.S13810


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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a supplement enriched in ω-3 fatty acids on immune responses and platelet–leukocyte complex formation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients in the supplement group (n = 7) took a supplement enriched in ω-3 fatty acids (Impact®) in addition to a hospital diet for five successive days before surgery; those in the control group (n = 7) took only hospital diet and did not take Impact®. Blood samples in both groups were collected at same time points. Before surgery, samples were collected five days before surgery, at the start of supplementation (baseline), and the end of supplementation (postoperative day (POD)-0). After surgery, samples were collected on POD-1 and POD-7. The expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, the ratio of CD4-/CD8-positive cells, the production of interferon (IFN)-γ by CD-positive cells, plasma levels of cytokines, and leukocyte–platelet aggregates were measured. Before surgery (POD-0), the supplement caused significant increases in HLA-DR expression, CD4/CD8 ratio, and plasma levels of IFN-γ; these levels were significantly higher compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05, respectively). After surgery (POD-1), all values dramatically decreased in comparison with those of POD-0; however, the values in the supplement group were significantly higher compared to their respective markers in the control group (P < 0.05, respectively). Significant differences of HLA-DR expression and CD4/CD8 ratio persisted through POD-7. Before surgery (POD-0), plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-10 in the supplement group decreased significantly compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). After surgery (POD-1), plasma levels of IL-10 in both the control and supplement groups increased; these levels in the supplement group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Significant decreases in the percentage of leukocyte–platelet aggregates were found after supplementation; the difference between the supplement and the control groups was found on POD-0 and POD-1 (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the dietary supplement increased HLA-DR expression, the CD4/CD8 ratio, and the production of IFN-γ by CD4-positive cells; conversely, the levels of IL-10 and the formation of leukocyte–platelet aggregates before and after surgery were suppressed. These beneficial effects may decrease the incidence of complications after surgery.



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