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Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that provide energy for a variety of basic cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria maintain their own genomes and many of their endosymbiont genes are encoded by nuclear genomes. The crosstalk between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes ensures mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and maintenance. Mitochondrial proteins are partly encoded by nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol and partly in the mitochondria coded by mitochondrial genome. The efficiency of transport systems that transport nuclear encoded gene products such as proteins and mRNAs to the mitochondrial vicinity to allow for their translation and/or import are recently receiving wide attention. There is currently no concrete evidence that nuclear encoded mRNA is transported into the mitochondria, however, they can be transported onto the mitochondrial surface and translated at the surface of mitochondria utilizing cytosolic machinery. In this review we present an overview of the recent advances in the mRNA transport, with emphasis on the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein mRNA into the mitochondria.
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